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Aaron's new camcorder is 1.4 gig per hour
HD is probably around 7 to 8 gig per hour
Codecs used for Blu-Ray discs (coding-decoding)   from
Codecs are compression schemes that store audio and video more efficiently, either giving longer play time or higher quality per megabyte. There are both lossy and lossless compression techniques.

The BD-ROM specification mandates certain codec compatibilities for both hardware decoders (players) and the movie-software (content). For video, all players are required to support MPEG-2, H.264/AVC, and SMPTE VC-1. MPEG-2 is the codec used on regular DVDs, which allows backwards compatibility. H.264/AVC was developed by MPEG and VCEG as a modern successor of MPEG-4. VC-1 is another MPEG-4 derivative codec mostly developed by Microsoft. BD-ROM titles with video must store video using one of the three mandatory codecs. Multiple codecs on a single title are allowed.

The choice of codecs affects the producer's licensing/royalty costs, as well as the title's maximum runtime, due to differences in compression efficiency. Discs encoded in MPEG-2 video typically limit content producers to around two hours of high-definition content on a single-layer (25 GB) BD-ROM. The more advanced video codecs (VC-1 and H.264) typically achieve a video runtime twice that of MPEG-2, with comparable quality.

MPEG-2 was used by many studios including Paramount Pictures (which suprisingly used the efficient VC-1 codec for HD DVD releases) for the first series of Blu-ray discs that were launched throughout 2006. Modern releases are now often encoded in either H.264/AVC or VC-1 allowing film studios to place all content on one disc reducing costs and improving ease of use, using these codecs will also free many GB of space for storage of bonus content in HD (1080i/p) as opposed to the SD (480i/p) typically used for most titles. Some studios (such as Warner Bros.) have released bonus content on discs encoded in a different codec than the main feature title, for example the Blu-ray release of Harry Potter and the Sorcerers Stone uses VC-1 for the feature film and MPEG-2 for bonus content (presumably because it is simply ported from the DVD release).
For users recording digital television programming, the recordable Blu-ray Disc standard's datarate of 54 Mbit/s is more than adequate to record high-definition broadcasts from any source (IPTV, cable/satellite, or terrestrial). For Blu-ray Disc movies the maximum transfer rate is 48 Mbit/s (1.5x) (both audio and video payloads together), of which a maximum of 40 Mbit/s can be dedicated to video data. This compares favorably to the maximum of 30.24 Mbit/s in HD DVD movies for audio and video data
September 2007 Research
  • My previous Ex-S500 records excellent movie in MPEG4. And now my new EX-V7 records in H.264. I can't tell much difference in movie quality. H.264 may be more efficient, i.e. save some storage space. I certainly like the new 848x480 16:9 widescreen mode.  The only problem I have is that I have to download Apple's QuickTime to view the new H.264 movie as it is created as QuickTime .mov file. This will make my future movie editing in Windows a little bit more difficult.  July 2007
  • What a pointless test between two of Apple's compressors. It's pretty standard knowledge of anyone with some experience to realize Apple's implementation of MPEG-4 is by far the worst in the industry. They stopped development in favor of MPEG-4/10 and it shows
  • "MPEG-4 AVC" is just another name for H.264.  Apple referred to it many times as "H.264/AVC", as does Sony.
  • MPEG-4 vs. H.264/AVC  In understanding MPEG-4 vs. H.264/AVC it's important to know that H.264/AVC are also both MPEG-4 as well. MPEG-4 actually consists of 22 Parts, many of which have not been implemented yet. MPEG-4 Part 2 was implemented in real world applications first and because of that, it has become widely known of as MPEG-4. It is most likely that MPEG-4 Part 2 came first because it was the least complex of many video profiles for MPEG-4 and people could start viewing what MPEG-4 content had to offer sooner. This is because MPEG-4 Part 2 doesn't require as much processor speed or memory as that of H.264/AVC because it's decoding algorithms are less complex. Now, let's talk about H.264/AVC.

    H.264 and AVC are actually the same thing. They refer to another part of MPEG-4 called MPEG-4 Part 10. So you can take your pick at what you would like to call it. MPEG-4 Part 10 includes Advanced Video Coding and uses higher level profiles than that of MPEG-4 Part 2. This type of decoding is more complex and requires more computer processor speed and memory because it uses more complicated decoding than MPEG-4 Part 10.
  • You’ll see the file size is nothing to get too excited about when you can get higher resolutions and larger bitrates from the standard MPEG4 format which will also play on your iPod. Yes, 20% file size reduction (without factoring in the lower resolution) may sound like a lot but when you are talking about movies that take a long time to encode it’s easier to find more storage then to convert the movie/TV show again when your non iPod device can’t play H.264 or software that can’t use it.
August 2006 Research  Apple article on h264 or MPEG-4 (Part 10) or AVC
Because H.264 is up to twice as efficient as MPEG-4 Part 2 (natural video) encoding, it has recently been welcomed into the MPEG-4 standard as Part 10 ? Advanced Video Coding. Many established encoder and decoder vendors are moving directly to h.264 and skipping the intermediate step of MPEG-4 Part 2
Old 2000 article about converting MPEG-2 DVD to MPEG-4 CD

MPEG-4 is not the same as QuickTime 
The MP4 file format has the same syntax as the QT file format: atoms
containing atoms and so on. The basic QT atoms appear in MP4 (mdat, moov,
mvhd, trak, etc), and things such as hint tracks are there also. But then,
MP4 movie files also require additional atoms that you will not find in a QT
movie (iods - Initial Object Descriptor, for instance), and you will often
find extra tracks as well (Scene description, object description, etc). So
the answer to your question is: no, a QT movie is not an MP4 movie. And
vice-versa, a QT movie is not an MP4 movie, even if it uses the same codecs
(which it very well could).
The fact that the file format and structure is the same however, makes the
DSS an MP4 streaming server without any modification.

With all of the various methods to deliver streaming content, why QuickTime and MPEG-4? The following will help explain why this technology is the best choice.

About MPEG-4

Why MPEG-4? Many people view MPEG-4 simply as MPEG-2 with double the compression. This is partly true, but MPEG-4 brings much more than improved compression. MPEG-4 is a complete "architecture" or system that enables broadcasters to deploy a complete, scaleable solution.

MPEG-4 provides not only the description for coding audio and video (as its predecessors MPEG-1 and MPEG-2), but also for coding images, animations, interactivity, protecting content, and distributing content on various transport channels - such as an MPEG-2 transport stream for digital broadcast, or as an IP (Internet Protocol) network for broadband streaming.

Benefits of MPEG-4 include:

Open, international standard: MPEG-4 is interoperable between products, ensuring multi-vendor support. Over 300 companies have spent over $500 million creating products based on the MPEG-4 standard.

Immediate cost savings on bandwidth and storage: MPEG-4 files result in a 50 percent improvement over MPEG-2 files.

Monetization of digital media assets, engagement of end user: With MPEG-4, you can create interactive media using multiple objects - audio, video, PowerPoint, 2D, and animation - in a single format. In addition, you can protect and monetize your content through digital rights management interfaces.

Broadest support for networks and devices: MPEG-4 provides optimal audio/video quality for low- and high-bandwidth networks. MPEG-4 files can be played back on multiple devices such as TV set-tops, PCs, and wireless devices.

While Sony plans to use MPEG-2 for Blu-ray ? albeit at bit rates several times higher than used on DVDs ? HD DVD's backers will be relying primarily on the newer AVC codec (a.k.a. H.264 or MPEG-4 Part 10) or the Microsoft VC-1 codec. While any of the three codecs can be used with either disc system, Sony claimed that their high-bit rate MPEG-2 encoding produces more artifact-free video than the others, at least for now.

conducted a technology review comparing the coding efficiency of the MPEG2, MPEG4-2 and MPEG4-10 (MPEG4 part 10, h.264 or h.26l) codecs in order to pick an effective and efficient compression algorithm to be used in a new satellite DBS system.
The processor power required by the new MPEG4-10 algorithm is an order of magnitude greater than the older MPEG4-2 algorithm. Using a 2Ghz Pentium 4 with 768MB RAM, encoding an 8 second sequence using the Microsoft MPEG4-2 encoder took under 60 seconds. Encoding the same sequence using the reference MPEG4-10 encoder took two hours. Note that the reference MPEG4-10 encoder is a proof of concept and is not yet optimized.


Creation date: Aug 28, 2006 4:09pm     Last modified date: Mar 30, 2008 6:19am   Last visit date: Aug 13, 2020 12:32am
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